Transmission Parts

By Mister Transmission

Transmission parts knowledge for people researching how transmissions work.

A transmission is an impressive puzzle to most drivers, made up of many intricate connections among a multitude of transmission parts. The complexity of these parts and how they fit together is intimidating, especially if you’re facing transmission repairs and you don’t understand what’s happening or why.

While we need to trust our transmission mechanics to take care of the specifics, knowing a little bit about the transmission parts that might be malfunctioning can help to set your mind at ease during the transmission repair process.

The first step to a basic understanding of transmission parts is to understand the purpose of the transmission as a whole. Your automatic transmission is responsible for transferring the power of your engine to the drive shaft and wheels so that your car can move within its optimal range of revolutions per minute (RPM). The transmission maintains this optimal range by shifting transmission gears as you drive faster or slower.

 
The main transmission parts that need to work together are:
  •     Planetary Gear Sets
  •     Hydraulic System
  •     Torque Converter
  •     Computer
Planetary Gear Sets

Manual transmissions use a clutch to connect the engine and transmission. They require the driver to shift the transmission gears, which means actually moving the gears in a somewhat linear, sliding transfer to engage with the coordinating gears needed to maintain the proper RPM ratio. Automatic transmissions keep the transmission gears in one place, in a more circular structure. This is not unlike a small solar system, hence the name Planetary Gear Sets.

Using the combination of an outer ring gear, a central “sun” gear, and two or more smaller “planet” gears, which are all constantly meshed together, the transmission takes over the gear shifting from the driver. Much like the solar system, the sun gear is in the centre and remains stationary and the smaller planet gears engage with it and the ring gear to keep the car moving smoothly.

The ring gear is connected to the input shaft, which brings power from the engine. The planet gears exist within a casing or carrier that is connected to the output shaft which carries power to the drive train and wheels. The planet gears are also connected to a clutch pack. The sun gear is connected to a drum, which is connected to the other half of the clutch pack.

Transmission clutch packs are a series of disks, half with splines on the outside edge, and half with splines on the inside edge. These alternating disks are made to fit together to lock and turn together. They do this using hydraulic functionality.

Hydraulic System

All of the transmission parts are constantly submersed in transmission fluid. This fluid is manipulated to create pressure, which pushes the transmission clutch pack together at the right time. A complex system of tubes moves the fluid around the transmission and torque converter to create this pressure. The transmission hydraulic system has three main purposes: to help control transmission gear shifting, to lubricate the transmission parts to prevent friction damage, and to keep the transmission cool. The fluid pressure within the transmission must be maintained at all times to prevent damage.

The tubes that transfer the transmission fluid have two major external seals at the front and back. The seal at the front protects the connection with the torque converter and the rear seal contains the fluid where the transmission meets the output shaft. Seals are made of neoprene. Within the transmission exists another type of seal, called a gasket, which connects and protects two stationary transmission parts. Gaskets may be made of any of a variety of materials, such as rubber or silicone. Seals and gaskets can harden over time, which might cause leaks and a drop in transmission fluid pressure, both of which can lead to damage to the transmission.

Torque Converter

When driving a manual transmission, the driver must engage the clutch or shift into neutral when the vehicle comes to a stop, such as at a red light, or the engine will stall. The torque converter in an automatic transmission allows the engine to continue running when the vehicle is stopped yet still in gear. Torque is defined as a force that causes rotation. The torque converter uses the pressure of the transmission fluid to control the rotation of its parts. When you are stopped at that red light, one half of the torque converter is turning while the other is stationary. When you accelerate, the fluid pressure forces the other half to spin in conjunction with the first half so that vehicle moves forward.

Computer

In most cars today, a computer controls the transmission’s function allowing all vehicle systems to work together for optimum fuel economy and power. As many as 30 sensors read all of the various factors such as vehicle speed, engine temperature, engine speed, etc, that control transmission gear shifting to ensure the optimal shift points are used.

The many transmission parts in your vehicle may remain a puzzle, but understanding some of the basics can help you to have a more informed conversation with your transmission mechanics before leaving it in their capable hands.

As Gene Lewis at the Moncton Mister Transmission says,

“We’re the specialists, transmissions are all we do.”

 

If you are experiencing a problem with your vehicle’s transmission, please contact your local Mister Transmission and book an appointment for our FREE 21-Point Multi-Check Inspection.

For a more in-depth explanation, please visit our Transmission School

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Jeffrey Dominic
Awesome customer service. A year after my transmission repair I felt an adjustment was required to my transmission and they performed it free of charge standing behind the quality of their work.
Date: October 8, 2021
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Jared Shura
I have known Eric and his crew for some time now. As a mechanic, I often come across difficult transmission related issues that get sent to him and resolved quickly and fairly priced. I just had Eric rebuild the transmission in my truck and I couldn’t believe how fairly priced the work was and the transmission shifts perfect now. Wouldn’t recommend anyone else but Eric at Mr.Transmission.
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R R
Mister Transmission staff were very professional and friendly. Answered all our questions and kept us upto date with the process.Jenna is wonderful she is friendly and professional and was able to respond in timely matter . Thank you Jenna your are great employee. I highly recommend them for any one in moncton and surrounding areas. They did an excellent work thank you so much.Ruby
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Julie Restas
Jeff was very kind and helped me a great deal. Would recommend to anyone. Diagnosis was not transmission recommended to go for other problem, did not charge me Unbelievable service and trustworthy.
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Jim Cerant
It is not too often when you find a local business that has over 50 5 star ratings, and when you do, you know that you are at the right place to get what you need, done. that was my experience with Mr. Transmission in Owen Sound . My first point of Contact was Warren who was great to speak with and we arranged a time to bring the car in. Later that week after I dropped off the car I had a chance to speak with the owner Chris. Again. another great guy to speak with and knew I was at the right place. They diagnosed the problem - Told me what it needed- gave me the price - fixed the problem- and in no time at all I was on my way. That is what I call great customer service. if you want to RYDNSTYL you need to visit Mr. Transmission in Owen Sound. Jim
Date: October 5, 2021
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Paul Ferrante
Got my trans fixed here. It still had issues brought it back and they honored the warranty with no hassle at all .. very pleasant management.. very easy to talk to . Great job . Truck is running perfect again . I recommend these guys..
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